According to a tradition, on January 1, 1807, on the fields near Łowicz, the soldiers of the Polish Army, formed in the Duchy of Warsaw by general Henryk Dąbrowski and prince Józef Poniatowski, swore on this shield and Stefan Czarniecki’s mace.
Stefan Czarniecki did not fight with the Turks; during the Swedish wars Turkey even supported Poland by sending assistance in the form of Tatar regiments. Kałkans, i.e. shields of the Turkish (and Persian) type, appeared in Poland not only as war pray, but also as acquisitions from Istanbul or Kashan. The described specimen is an example of high class craftsmanship in the Turkish empire. It is made of cane referred to as rattan, wrapped by colourful silk threads. They form a composition of a large five-pointed star, with silver, gilded and engraved umbo, that is central shield. The other side is lined with crimson velvet and has a small cushion to ensure comfort for the hand. The shield comes from the Temple of Sybil.